Historical Time Line - Revolutionary War Years

US Historical Events World / Historical Events Christian & other Religious Events
1770 March 5. The Boston Massacre. A group of soldiers surrounded by an unfriendly crowd opened fire, killing three Americans including Crispus Attucks (1723?-1770) a runaway slave, and fatally wounding two more. A violent uprising was avoided only with the withdrawal of the troops to islands in the harbor. The soldiers were tried for murder, but convicted only of lesser crimes; noted patriot John Adams was their principal lawyer.

April 12. In Parliament, the Townshend Revenue Act was repealed, except for the tax on tea. 

An End to Nonimportation.In response to Parliament's relaxation of its taxation laws, the colonies relaxed their boycott of British imported goods (1767). 

June 27. The House of Burgessesunanimously agreed to petition the king to end Parliamentary taxation in America. 

October 18. The Treaty of Lochaber,South Carolina, in which the Cherokees agreed to cede more land to European settlers, was signed. When the line was run several months later, it was even farther west--to the Louisa (now Kentucky) River, opening up part of Kentucky to Virginians. 

Conflict between Citizens and British Troops in New York. After a leading New York Son of Liberty issued a broadside attacking the New York Assembly for complying with the Quartering Act (1765), a riot erupted between citizens and soldiers, resulting in serious wounds but no fatalities. 

In Boston, William Billings (1746-1800) published the first collection of entirely American music

John Wesley (1703–1791) sent Francis Asbury (1745–1816) (also known as the "Wesley of America") to America to strengthen and enlarge the Methodist societies. 

George Whitfield Dies and he is memorialized by one of Phillis Wheatly's great poems.

1771 The Assembly Room in Bath, England, opened

First edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica is published.

The first separate Baptist Association was formed at a meeting in Orange County, Virginia. 
1772 Attack on the "Gaspee." After several boatloads of men attacked a grounded British customs schooner near Providence, Rhode Island, the royal governor offered a reward for the discovery of the men, planning to send them to England for trial. The removal of the "Gaspee" trial to England outraged American colonists.

November 2. Committees of Correspondence. Samuel Adams called for a Boston town meeting to create committees of correspondence to communicate Boston's position and rejection of British policies including prospect of a colonial Anglican bishop. Similar committees were soon created throughout the colonies.At this first meeting John Allen preached on The Beauties ofLiberty

May 14. James Somerset vs. his master, Mr. Stewart of Virginia came before the British court, Different forms of slavery had been present in Great Britain for thousands of years.but the ruling of William Murray, Lord Mansfield. guaranteed that there would never again be slavery on British soil. But this turned out to be only one step in the long voyage of British ablolition.. 

William Wilberforce led in having slavery abolished in the British empire. 

The Inquisition was abolished in France. 

John Wesley (1703–1791)ordained Thomas Coke(1747–1814) as general superintendent of the Methodists in America.

Joseph Pilmore (1739-1825), an itinerant Methodist preacher, commanded a large audience at the Williamsburg Playhouse and in the Capitol Yard.

First Baptist church was established in Georgia. 

Salem College was founded in North Carolina.

1773 February 9, William Henry Harrison is born in Virginia. 

March 12. A Committee of Correspondence was formed in Virginia to communicate with other colonial legislatures. Virginia was the first to propose communication among the colonies. 

April 7. England ordered all colonial governors to cease granting lands except to veterans of the French and Indian War. In Virginia, Dunmore gave this order the most liberal interpretation possible and included colonial troops as well as regular British Army soldiers. 

May 10. Parliament passed the Tea Act. By reducing the tax on imported British tea, this act gave British merchants an unfair advantage in selling their tea in America.

 October 11. The conflict between Pennsylvania and Virginia over land around Pittsburgh was resolved by creating the district of West Augusta with overlapping jurisdiction. (The term "district" was used to get around the order against establishing new counties.) 

December 16. Boston Tea Party. When British tea ships arrived in Boston harbor, many citizens wanted the tea sent back to England without the payment of any taxes. The royal governor insisted on payment of all taxes. but instead a group of men disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped 340 chests of tea injto the harbor. 

The Public Hospital in Williamsburg opened and was the first hospital in America devoted exclusively to the treatment of mental illness. 

The Silver Bluff Church for blacks was founded at the Galpin plantation in South Carolina. by a slave named George Liele and white itinerant preacher named Elder Palmer. Pastor David George was summarily put in charge. (some say the Church was founded in 1775)

The Williamsburg Masonic Lodge obtained a new charter. The Masons had been meeting in Williamsburg since at least 1751. 

Phillis Wheatley (1753?-1784) Born in Senegal Africa, and brought to America as a slave. She was later raised as a beloved member of the Wheatly household. At 13 she became the first black American to have her work published "Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral." 

Beginning of Jesuit sepression as they were disbanded by the Pope (lasted until 1814)

Jeremiah Moore was arrested and imprisoned for preaching in Virginia. 

1774 Coercive Acts. In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed several acts to punish Massachusetts. March 31. The Boston Port Bill, closed the Boston port to all trade as of June 1. In response, May 24. The House of Burgesses adopted a resolution naming June 1, the day the port of Boston was to be closed, a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer in Virginia. On May 26. Lord Dunmore dissolved the General Assembly after the burgesses' May 24 resolution was printed.

The Administration of Justice Act offered protection to royal officials in Massachusetts, allowing them to transfer to England all court cases against them involving riot suppression or revenue collection.

The Massachusetts Government Act put the election of most government officials under the control of the Crown, essentially eliminating the Massachusetts charter of government. 

May. Quebec Act guarantees religious freedom for Roman Catholic colonists was condemned by many as extending "Papist Rule"

Quartering Act. Parliament broadened its previous Quartering Act (1765). British troops could now be quartered in any occupied dwelling.

May 13. General Thomas Gage(1721-1787) arrived in Boston to take command of British forces quartered there. 

June 1. Virginians expressed their sympathy for Bostonians by observing a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer. George Washington recorded that he "Went to Church and fasted all Day" in Williamsburg. 

July 10. Governor Dunmore departed for the Ohio Valley in an expedition against the Shawnees, beginning Dunmore's War. He reached the Ohio River with about 1,300 men in early October. October 19. The Treaty of Camp Charlotte, in which Cornstalk recognized Virginia's claims to the upper Ohio River valley, was signed, ending Dunmore's War. 

August 1-6. The first Virginia Convention met in Williamsburg and adopted resolves against British goods and the importation of slaves after November 1 and against exports to Britain after August 10, 1775. Richard Bland, Benjamin Harrison (1726?-1791), Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794), Edmund Pendleton (1721-1803), Peyton Randolph (1721?-1775), and George Washington were elected to represent Virginia in the Continental Congress. 

September 5-October 26. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. They adopted an association based on Virginia's, but extended the dates slightly. Twelve of the thirteen colonies sent a total of fifty-six delegates. Only Georgia was not represented. One accomplishment of the Congress was the Association of 1774, which urged all colonists to avoid using British goods, and to form committees to enforce this ban. Another was the declaration of rights passed on October 14.

November 7. At the Yorktown Tea Party, two half-chests of tea imported by John Prentis & Company of Williamsburg were thrown into the York River. 

Thomas Jefferson'sSummary View of the Rights of British America was published by Clementina Rind in Williamsburg and reprinted in Philadelphia and London. The manuscript brought Jefferson acclaim; consequently, the Continental Congress later chose him to draft the Declaration of Independence. 

Baptist Isaac Backus (Sept.) demands that First Continental Congress, meeting in Carpenter’s Hall, Philadelphia, protect Baptists’ religious liberty

Ann Lee founds first Shaker Community.

Reformed Presbyterian Church in America, "Coventanter Church", is formed. 

Theophilus Lindsey establishes the first Unitarian Church in London.


1775 January 14. Lord Dartmouth forbids the colonies to import powder and arms from Great Britain. 

New England Restraining Act.Parliament passed an act banning trade between the New England colonies and any other country besides Great Britain.

March 17. The Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, by the terms of which the Cherokees sold the Transylvania Company of North Carolina all land between the Kentucky and Cumberland Rivers (present-day central and western Kentucky and north central Tennessee), was signed. 

New England Resists. British troops continued to attempt to seize colonial ammunition, but were turned back in Massachusetts, without any violence. Royal authorities decided that force should be used to enforce recent acts of Parliament; war seemed unavoidable.

March 23. At a meeting at St. John's Church in Richmond, the second Virginia Convention heard Patrick Henry deliver his "Give me liberty or Give me death" speech supporting a resolution to put Virginia "into a posture of defense." 

March 25. The Virginia Conventionrequiredeach county to form a volunteer company of cavalry or infantry. 

April 18/19. Paul Revere's (1735-1818) midnight ride British troops planned to destroy American ammunition at Concord. When the Boston Committee of Safety learned of this plan, it sent Paul Revere and William Dawes to alert the countryside and gather the Minute Men. 

April 19. Lexington and Concord. The first battles of the American Revolution took place when Minute Men and British troops met at Lexington, where a shot from a stray British gun lead to more British firing. The Americans only fired a few shots; several Americans were killed. The British marched on to Concord and destroyed some ammunition, but soon found the countryside swarming with militia. At the end of the day, many were dead on both sides. 

April 21. Royal marines, acting under Governor Dunmore's orders, took 15 half-barrels of gunpowder from the Magazine in Williamsburg.

May 10. The Second Continental Congress. The Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia. This time all 13 colonies attended and John Hancock was elected president of Congress. On July 6, congress set forth the causes and necessity of taking up arms.

May 31. The Charlotte Town Resolves. The American Colonies are declared to be in a State of actual Rebelion, we conceive that all Laws and Commissions confirmed by, or derived from the Authority of the King or Parliament, are annulled and vacated, and the former civil Constitution of these Colinies for the present wholly suspended.

June 15. George Washington is named commander-in-chief. On June 10, John Adams proposed that Congress consider the forces in Boston a Continental army, and suggested the need for a general. He recommended George Washington for the position. Congress began to raise men from other colonies to join the army in New England, and named a committee to draft military rules. On June 15, Washington was nominated to lead the army; he accepted the next day. To pay for the army, Congress issued bills of credit, and the twelve colonies represented in the Congress promised to share in repaying the bills.

June 17. Bunker Hill. OnJune 12, British General Gage put martial law in effect, and stated that any person helping the Americans would be considered a traitor and rebel. When Americans began to fortify a hill against British forces, British ships in the harbor discovered the activity and opened fire. British troops -- 2,400 in number -- arrived shortly after. Although the Americans -- 1,000 in number -- resisted several attacks, eventually they lost the fortification. 

July 6. Congress adopted a "Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms." 

July 8. Olive Branch Petition.Congress issued a petition declaring its loyalty to the king, George III, and stating its hope that he would help arrange a reconciliation and prevent further hostilities against the colonies. Franklin and Adams thought this was a useless gesture, but they consented to appease the "moderates." August 23. King George III rejected the petition and declared the colonies in rebellion. 

July 17. The third Virginia Convention met in Richmond and appointed a Committee of Safety. They also ordered the formation of two regiments as well as minutemen and militia. 

November 15. After a clear victory at Kemp's Landing near Norfolk, Dunmore issued his Emancipation Proclamation, which declared martial law and freed "all indented Servants, Negroes, or others . . . that are able and willing to bear Arms, they joining His Majesty's forces." Eventually, several hundred blacks joined his ranks. The governor also raised the king's standard at the battle site and in Norfolk the next day. 

December 9. The Battle of Great Bridge was fought between the British 14th Regiment and Woodford's Virginia forces. British deaths and injuries were numerous, while only one Virginian was injured. 

December 22. Congress Creates a Navy. Congress began to plan for aggressive action against British ships stocked with ammunition. It authorized the building of four armed ships, and began to formulate rules for a navy. Congress named Esek Hopkins commodore of the fledgling American navy. Soon after, Congress authorized privateering, and issued rules for dealing with enemy vessels and plunder.

December 31. Richard Montgomery (1736-1775) and Benedict Arnold (1741-1801) led the American assault on Quebec and were repulsed. Montgomery was killed and Arnold wounded in the fighting. Captain Daniel Morgan (1736-1802) and his Virginians were captured. 

Edward Barnes wrote the words to "Yankee Doodle" and set it to an old English tune. 

Congress Treats with the Indians.Acting as an independent government, Congress appointed commissioners to create peace treaties with the Indians.

Congress Searches for Foreign Aid. When a congressional committee began to investigate the possibility of foreign aid in the war against Great Britain, France expressed interest.

Women and children released from bondage in Britain’s coal and salt mines by George III 

Josiah Wedgwood perfected jasperware. 

Maratha Wars (1776-1817)a series of wars between the British and the Maratha. The First Maratha War (1776-1792) began as a civil war from which the British capitalized and obtained a small island near Bombay.

England hires 29,000 German (Hessian) mercenaries for war. 

James Watt invented the steam engine.

In July Continental Congsres calls for day of prayer and fasting; preachers debate whether to submit to British authority
1776 January 1. Washington raised a Continental flag with thirteen stripes before his quarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

"Common Sense." Thomas Paine (1737-1809) moved many to the cause of independence with his pamphlet titled "Common Sense." In a direct, simple style, he cried out against King George III and the monarchical form of government. February 2.Excerpts from Paine's pamphlet were printed in the Virginia Gazette.

May. Second Continental Congress Authorizes the Colonies to Write Constitutions. The former colonial governments had dissolved with the outbreak of war.

June 7. Richard Henry Lee(1732-1794), chairman of the Virginia delegation, offered a resolution for independence in Congress stating that the colonies "are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States." June 11. Congress appointed a committee, chaired by Thomas Jefferson, to draft a declaration of independence. 

June 12. The Virginia Convention, still in session in Williamsburg, adopted the first Declaration of Rights in America. Based on George Mason's (1725-1792) draft, 

June 29. The Virginia convention adopted a constitution for the new commonwealth and chose Patrick Henry as the state's first governor. (Henry was reelected in 1777, 1784, and 1785, but declined in 1786.) 

On July 2, Congress voted in favor of independence, and on July 4, the Declaration of Independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson. was approved. Copies were sent throughout the colonies to be read publicly.

August 2. The Declaration of Independence, engrossed on parchment, was signed by the members of Congress still present in Philadelphia

December 26. Battle of Trenton. Washington crosses the Deleware and launches a surprise attack against a British fortification at Trenton, New Jersey, that was staffed by Hessian soldiers. After one hour of confused fighting, the Hessians surrendered. Only five American soldiers were killed.

The British Evacuate Boston.American General Henry Knox arrived in Boston with cannons he had moved with great difficulty from Fort Ticonderoga, New York. Americans began to entrench themselves around Boston, planning to attack the British. British General William Howe planned an attack, but eventually retreated from Boston.

Battle of Long Island. After leaving Boston, British General Howe planned to use New York as a base. The British captured Staten Island and began a military build-up on Long Island in preparation for an advance on Brooklyn. Washington succeeded in saving his army by secretly retreating onto Manhattan Island. Washington eventually retreated from Manhattan, fearing the prospect of being trapped on the island, and the British occupied New York City.

Congress Names Commissioners to Treat with Foreign Nations. Congress sent a delegation of three men to Europe -- Silas Deane, Benjamin Franklin, and Arthur Lee -- to prepare treaties of commerce and friendship, and to attempt to secure loans from foreign nations.

The Battle of White Plains.British and American forces met at White Plains, New York, where the British captured an important fortification. Washington once again retreated, still attempting to save his army from the full force of the British army.

Retreat through New Jersey.Washington and his army retreated across New Jersey, crossing the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. Congress, fearing a British attack on Philadelphia, fled to Baltimore. 

Phi Beta Kappa was founded at the College of William and Mary.

Publication of the first volume ofThe History of the Decline of Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon (1737-1794).  September. New Jersey Dutch Reformed split on political lines; 

December. North Carolina constitution restricts officeholding to Protestants;

December 5. At its first session, the new Virginia House of Delegates exempted dissenters from taxes to support the Anglican church. It took ten years for the legislature to accept Jefferson's Bill for Religious Freedom. 

Hampden-Sydney College was foundedin Prince Edward County, Virginia. The college initially was a Presbyterian institution. 

Methodists number 4,921

1777 June 14. Stars and Stripes Flag Adoped by Congress. The flag of the United States would consist of thirteen alternating red and white stripes, and a blue field with thirteen white stars.

July 20. The Cherokees make peace with Virginia and North Carolina, giving up lands east of the Blue Ridge Mountains and north of the Nolichucky River. Some Cherokees rejected this and other treaties, withdrawing to Chickamauga (in what is today Georgia) and continuing to fight for several years. 

October 7. Saratoga. British and American troops engaged in New York. Fatigued from battle and short of supplies, British General John Burgoyne's troops were repulsed by American forces under General Horatio Gates. On October 8, Burgoyne retreated to Saratoga; by October 13, he asked for terms of surrender. The "Convention of Saratoga" called for Burgoyne's army to be sent back to England, and for each soldier to pledge not to serve again in the war against the colonies.

Battle of Princeton. British General Howe reacted to the Battle of Trenton by sending a large force of men to New Jersey. At Princeton, Washington once again launched a surprise attack, and succeeded in defeating the British. His efforts cleared most of New Jersey of enemy forces, and greatly boosted American morale.

The British Attack Philadelphia.British and Americans met at Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania. The Americans retreated, and the British soon occupied Philadelphia, forcing Congress once again to flee the city. After retreating further during the Battle of Germantown, Washington settled his army for the winter in Valley Forge -- a winter of extreme cold and great hunger.

The "Conway Cabal." Many in Congress were unhappy with Washington's leadership; some murmured the name of General Horatio Gates as a possible replacement. Thomas Conway, the army's inspector general, wrote a critical letter to Gates about Washington, leading many to believe there was an organized effort to replace Washington. Conway resigned from the army, and eventually apologized to Washington.

Articles of Confederation.When Richard Henry Lee made a motion for independence (1776), he also proposed a formal plan of union among the states. After a discussion lasting more than a year, the Articles of Confederation were adopted by Congress, although the states did not ratify the Articles until 1781.

Washington’s army suffers through winter at Valley Forge (1777 - 1778)

Howard, John (c. 1726-1790) - published his influential State of Prisons in England and in 1789 his Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe.

Aug. Pennsylvania officials deport 40-plus Quakers for "disloyalty;"

1778 February 6. In Paris a treaty was negotiated by Benjamin Franklin making France an ally with America in the American Revolution. News of the alliance reached Virginia on May 8. This alliance stated that each would consider the other a "most favored nation" for trade and friendship; France would be obligated to fight for American independence; and America would be obligated to stand by France if war should occur between France and Great Britain. Within four months, France and Great Britain were at war.

The British Attempt to Make Peace.Threatened by the alliance between France and America, Parliament proposed the repeal of the Tea Act (1773) and Coercive Acts (1774), pledged not to tax the colonies, and sent peace commissioners to America. However, most Americans were interested only in British recognition of American independence. When a British commissioner tried to bribe congressmen Joseph Reed, Robert Morris, and Francis Dana, Americans became even less interested in reconciliation. Competing for support from the American people, both Congress and the desperate commissioners appealed directly to them with broadsides, but the British commissioners soon returned to Great Britain, their mission a failure.

John Paul Jones Wins Victories.Although Esek Hopkins was never very successful with the American navy, Captain John Paul Jones won several victories against the British with his ship, the "Ranger."

The Battle of Monmouth. When the British headed for New York, Washington left Valley Forge to follow. At the Battle of Monmouth, American General Charles Lee gave several confused orders, and then ordered a sudden retreat. Washington's arrival on the scene saved the battle, although the British escaped to New York during the night. Lee was later court-martialed.

Prime Minister of England William Pitt introduced the first bill attempting to regulate the slave trade. William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharpe, three of the more prominent leaders of the movement, fought the government and wrote constantly, while attempting to abolish the slave trade.

Modern flush toilet invented

Voltaire and Rousseau died

Captain James Cook discovered Hawaii

South Carolina permits Anglican-like churches that meet certain criteria

A second Toleration Act allowed religious freedom in England to all but Unitarians

1779 May. Benedict Arnold began secret negotiations with the British. He did not openly join the British until September 1780. 

June 1. Thomas Jefferson was elected governor of Virginia. He served two successive terms. 

The British Attack in North and South. Fighting continued in both the northern and southern states. In the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, Loyalists and Indians led by Mohawk Joseph Brant attacked American settlers. The Loyalists soon were defeated, and Americans went on to destroy many Indian villages whose residents were fighting on the side of the British.

Spain Joins the War. Spain asked Britain for Gibraltar as a reward for joining the war on the British side. When Britain refused, Spain joined with France in its war against Britain, although refusing to recognize American independence.

December 4. The College of William and Mary reorganized as a university, offering the first elective system of studies in the United States. 

Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) proved that semen was necessary for fertilization.  Virginia considers public subsidies for churches

New Light Baptists joined the Shakers.

1780 May 12. The British Take Charleston, South Carolina. . After nearly two months' battle, Major General Benjamin Lincoln (1733-1810) surrendered Charleston, South Carolina, to General Clinton. Woodford's Virginia Continental Line, capturing 5,400 men and four American ships in the harbor. It was the worst American defeat of the war.

A Mutiny in the Continental Army.When the value of Continental currency sank to a new low, Congress had problems supplying the American army. Great shortages of food led to a short-lived mutiny among some Connecticut soldiers at Washington's camp in New Jersey.

The Treason of Benedict Arnold. American General Benedict Arnold, frustrated and ambitious, began dealing with British General Sir Henry Clinton. After he was promised the command at West Point by General Washington, Arnold told Clinton that he would give the strategic American fortification to the British. But when British Major John Andr, acting as messenger, was captured, Arnold fled to a British ship, revealing his involvement in the treasonous plan. Andr‚ was executed as a spy, and Arnold was made a brigadier general in the British army.

The American Academy of Science was founded in Boston

Robert Raikes (1735–1811) establishes a Sunday School in Gloucester

Massachusetts decides to continue public funding of Congregational churches

Newton and Cowper publish Olney Hymns 

John Murray founded the Universalist Church of America.

1781 Congress Creates a Department of Finance. American finances were in such dire straits that Congress saw the need for a separate department of finance. Robert Morris was appointed superintendent of finance.

The Articles of Confederation Are Ratified. With the ratification of the Articles of Confederation, under discussion since 1777, Congress assumed a new title, "The United States in Congress Assembled."

October 19. The Battle of Yorktown.Cornwallis surrendered 7,247 British forces at Yorktown. General Washington, with plentiful help from Lafayette and other French officers and field, had practically won independence for the colonies.

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) German philosopher, considered by many the most influential thinker of modern times. published "Critique of Pure Reason"in which he examined and catagorised human knowledge as being either analytic, or comprising synthetic propositions.  Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786). publishesOn the Civil Amelioration of the Condition of the Jews by 

About 1,781 blacks in the Williamsburg area formed their own independent Baptist church. (Local oral tradition maintains that this happened in 1776.) 

Religious tolerance was granted in Austria by the Edict of Tolerance. 

1782 November 1. Congress Establishes Thanksgiving Holiday. Reminiscent of the First Thanksgiving Proclamation (1676), Congress established holiday as a day of solemn thanksgiving to God for all his mercies and American liberty from British rule. And asked that each American give thanks " by a cheerful obedience of His laws, and by promoting, each in his station, and by his influence, the practice of true and undefiled religion, which is the great foundation of public prosperity and national happiness."

November 30. In Paris, Americans signed preliminary articles of peace with the British. The United States sent Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay. Its terms called for Great Britain to recognize American independence and provide for the evacuation of all British troops. Great Britain also gave up its territory between the Mississippi River and the Allegheny Mountains, doubling the size of the new nation. News of this provisional peace agreement reached Virginia in late April 1783.

December 5. Martin Van Buren is born in New York.

Virginia legislators passed a law permitting the freeing of slaves

James Watt invented the double-acting rotary steam engine Francis Asbury (1745-1816) preached at the Courthouse in Williamsburg. 

The Aitken Bible became the first Bible to be printed in America. 

1783 The Army Complains. When a delegation of army officers complained to Congress about their unpaid salaries and pensions, Congress had no quick solution. An anonymous letter urged officers to unite and attempt one last appeal to Congress. If its attempt was ignored, the army was prepared to revolt against Congress. Washington, addressing the army in person at its headquarters in Newburgh, New York, convinced them to be patient, and not to dishonor themselves after their glorious victory. Visibly moved, the officers adopted resolutions to present to Congress, and pledged not to threaten violence or rebellion.

September 3. The Peace Treaty of 1783, also known as The Paris Peace Treaty or treaty of Versailles, ended the United States War for Independence. Representing England was Richard Oswald, chief negotiator under the Earl of Shelburne, the Secretary of State; signing for Britain was David Hartley. Representing the United States of America were John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay, all of whom signed the treaty.This treaty gave formal recognition to the United States of America, established her boundaries, (at the time), secured certain fishing rights, addressed problems between creditors, provided fair treatment for those who decided to remain loyal to Great Britain, and opened up the Mississippi River to navigation by citizens of both signatory nations. News of the ratification reached Virginia on February 3, 1784

The Loyalists and British Evacuate New York. New York City was the last Loyalist refuge in America. Starting in April, nearly 30,000 Loyalists, knowing that the British soon would leave New York, packed their belongings and sailed to Canada and England, followed shortly by the British army. In November, when the British sailed away, Washington entered the city and formally bade farewell to his officers. Soon after, he resigned his commission.

The American Army Disbands.In June, most of Washington's army disbanded and headed for home just before the British evacuated New York. A small force remained until all the British had departed.

 Congress Is Threatened. A group of soldiers from Pennsylvania marched on Congress, demanding their pay. Armed and angry, they surrounded Independence Hall. The members of Congress eventually were allowed to leave the building; they fled to Princeton, New Jersey.

Benjamin Franklin's pamphletRemarks Concerning the Savage of North America included an Indian quotation showing cultural differences. 

Noah Webster (1758-1843)published part one of Grammatical Institute of the English Language.

First Successful hot air balloon

Earthquake in Calabria, Italy kills 30,000

Famine in Japan. 

1784 November 24. Zachary Taylor is born in Virginia.

The Western Territories.Thomas Jefferson headed a committee that proposed a plan for dividing the western territories, providing a temporary government for the West, and devising a method for new western states to enter the Union on an equal basis with the original states. The plan was adopted, but not put into effect.

Congress Creates a Board of Finance.When Robert Morris resigned as superintendent of finance, he was replaced by a Board of Finance consisting of three commissioners.

New York the Temporary Capital.Congress decided to make New York City the temporary capital of the United States, until the location of a permanent federal city was decided upon.

A law was passsed to prohibit the importation of slaves in Maryland. 

United Empire Loyalists arrive in Canada; New Brunswick becomes a separate colony to accommodate them The Methodist Church orders its members to free their slaves within the year. The order was faced with so many objections from churches in Southern States that it was suspended.

Baptists number 35,101

Jews were allowed to reside in France.

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